The information presented through forum are synthetic data on six sets of variables that are relevant to resilience or vulnerability. Researchers will then be able to investigate these variables to gain a better and generalizable understanding of the roles of these kinds of variables in various situations.

For example, an increase in population is often thought to increase vulnerability to resource shortfalls, but if a certain labor-intensive infrastructure is developed, then a drop in population may increase vulnerability. Similarly, a high degree of interaction and exchange across space may buffer populations from area-specific resource fluctuations, but it may also create a situation of hypercoherence such that problems in one areareverberate across a much larger region.

Find the synthetic data here:

A “Master Chronology” spreadsheet provides background information on all five cases, including the names and dates of periods, and the names of areas (subdivisions of the cases) if applicable.

The synthetic data relevant to vulnerability and resilience are then organized in terms sets of variables that draw upon this mater chronology. Each dataset is presented in a separate spreadsheet and can be viewed by clicking the tabs at the bottom of the page.


-Field Types (types of agricultural field location)
-Exchange (intra and inter-regional interaction as indicated by ceramics)
-Climate (rainfall, temperature, pluvial events)
-Subsistence Resources (botanical and faunal data)
-Infrastructure (public architecture and canal systems)
-Demography (settlement data)









In each table, gray background is used to indicate cells for which we do not currently have data (although future research may provide them).

Metadata for each are provided for each variable in a separate document. These documents detail how the synthetic data were derived and how the variable relate to one another and the themes of resilience and vulnerability.


Field Types, Field Type Definitions


Climate,, Climate References

Subsistence Resources, Resource Data Codes,




The data provided here are in summary form. These data are derived from primary data that are or will soon be available in the Digital Archaeological Record. We also will provide information on inferential chains so that interested scholars with expertise in interpreting archaeological data can trace how we derived the summary data. For example, the population estimates for a given area and time period are based on a multitude of data about house and settlement sizes, survey coverage, and dates.